The 1970s was not a decade of stylistic revolution such as the “New Wave” of the late 1960s, but perhaps a decade of consolidation, where the lessons learned from mainstream literature, “New Wave” experimentalism, and the classics of science fiction were melded into a healthy hybrid. For example, leading author of the literature of paranoia Thomas Pynchon published a mainstream bestseller which used experimental techniques and was unquestionably science fiction: “Gravity’s Rainbow.” Samuel R. Delany, who had astonished readers with his adventurous works written while he was still a teenager absorbed academic theories and Semiotics to produce massive and puzzling works such as “Dhalgren.” E. L. Doctorow blurred the line between history, fiction, and fantasy with Nebula finalist “Ragtime.”Italo Calvino wowed his native Italian audiences, and critics, then the world at large with hyper-modern fantasy and science fiction which was nonetheless solidly based on his study of Italian folktales. Kingsley Amis, known for many mainstream and satirical novels, also wrote science fiction and was a useful critic of its literary history. William Kotzwinkle was marketed as mainstream, but his giddy fantasies such as “Doctor Rat” were embraced by our genre.